By Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445
Transparent realizing of the results of torsion on concrete individuals is vital to the secure, low-budget layout of bolstered and prestressed concrete contributors. This document starts off with a short and systematic precis of the 180-year background of torsion of structural concrete individuals, new and up-to-date theories and their purposes, and a old review outlining the improvement of analysis on torsion of structural concrete participants. old theories and truss versions comprise classical theories of Navier, Saint-Venant, and Bredt; the third-dimensional (3-D) area truss of Rausch; the equilibrium (plasticity) truss version of Nielson in addition to Lampert and Thürlimann; the compression box concept (CFT) through Collins and Mitchell; and the softened truss version (STM) through Hsu and Mo.
This document emphasizes that it's necessary to the research of torsion in strengthened concrete that contributors should still: 1) fulfill the equilibrium (Mohr’s pressure circle); 2) obey the compatibility (Mohr’s pressure circle); and three) determine the constitutive relationships of fabrics similar to the “softened” stress-strain courting of concrete and “smeared” stress-strain dating of metal bars. The habit of participants subjected to torsion mixed with bending second, axial load, and shear is mentioned. This document offers with layout matters, together with compatibility torsion, spandrel beams, torsional restrict layout, open sections, and measurement results.
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Extra info for ACI 445.1R-12 - Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete
2) + Vo To When torsion design provisions were introduced in ACI 318-71, a circular interaction between Vc and Tc was assumed. This approach slightly increased the design time in members with transverse reinforcement. Abandoned in ACI 318-95, concrete contribution to torsion, Tc, was disregarded to simplify design. Considerable scatter produced by test specimens without transverse reinforcement confirms the sound principle that members subjected to such combined actions should contain a minimum amount of transverse and longitudinal reinforcement.
In both Specimens A3 and B2, the load-torque curve had the same three stages exhibited in Specimens A1 and B1. Both specimens also exhibited the anticipated level of torsion redistribution. Although A3 and B2 failed at almost the same ultimate failure loads as Specimens A1 and B1, the failure load corresponded to about 50 percent less torsion at the joint between the floor beam and the spandrel beam. 1R-12) 43 Fig. 1a—Series A (Hsu and Burton 1974). ) Fig. 1b—Series B (Hsu and Burton 1974). ) these two specimens closely matched the design assumption of 52 percent torsional redistribution.
In pure torsion, the additional bottom longitudinal reinforcement available in unsymmetrically reinforced sections does not increase the ultimate strength because the weaker top reinforcement is critical. The addition of a flexural moment introduces compression in the weaker top reinforcement and increases its resistance to torsional shear stresses. Based on the same experimental study (Onsongo 1978), it appears that a small axial compressive force substantially increases post-cracking stiffness of a torsionally cracked member with strength also enhanced.