By M. L.; Edsall, John T. (Eds) Anson
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A less specific conversion of glutamic acid to succinic acid for analytical purposes (successive use of NaNOz and KMn04) has been described by Arhimo and Laine (471a). Use of Periodic Acid, etc. Periodate, introduced by Malaprade a specific oxidizing agent for a-glycols, has found widespread use in structural studies df carbohydrates. Nicolet and Shinn (472) discovered that, among the amino acids, periodate attacks in the same way those possessing the structure RCHOH. CHO +NHa Of the usual amino acids serine, threonine, and hydroxylysine may be determined by the volatile aldehyde and ammonia liberated in these reactions.
A drop of a solution of amino acids is placed near the corner of a sheet of filter-paper (18”X22”). Hanging by one edge from a long trough containing collidine, the chromatogram is allowed to develop for 48-72 hrs. The amino acids are now spread along a Iine close and paraIle1 to one edge of the paper. The sheet is dried, and this edge is then put into the trough, and a second run is made using water-saturated phenol, in an atmosphere containing NH,. After development the sheet is again dried. The acids are then spread in a characteristic pattern across the paper, and their position may be revealed by spraying the paper with ninhydrin solution, drying, and heating.
Let us consider a single membrane. Three processes are occurring simultaneously - diffusion, ionophoresis and endosmosis. Provided enough other ions are present for diffusion potentials to be small, the rate of transfer by diffusion of a given ionic species (or uncharged molecule) depends directly on the mobility, the effective cross-section of the membrane and the difference in concentration on the two sides of the membrane, and inversely on the thickness o€ the membrane. The rate of transfer by ionophoresis depends directly upon the effective cross-section, concentration, mobility and potential gradient.