By M L Anson; Kenneth Bailey; John T Edsall
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Extra resources for Advances in protein chemistry. / Volume 9
ARNSTEIN CHzNHz*COzE-I Glvcine -Cr (fast) +Cr (fast) -coz . CHO * CO zH Glyoxylic acid CHzOH CHzNHz Ethanolamine / \--NH* '\ +ZM[ CHzOH-CHO + CHzOH-COzH Glycolaldehyde Glycollic acid CHzOH. CHt,COJ~ Sarcosine + T I+ +Ma (slow) CH20H. CHzNMea Choline -Cr (fast) (fast) (fwt) + MesN. CH2. 1. The glycine-ethanolamine-cholinecycle. CI represents the one-carbon precursor of the hydroxymethyl group of serine. The probable rates of individual reactions are indicated in parentheses. Monomethylethanolamine and dimethylglycine, which are likely intermediates in the methylation of ethanolamine to choline and in the demethylation of betaine, repsectively, have been omitted from this diagram.
Glyceric acid, glyceraldehyde, or dihydroxyacetone would appear to be potential sources of such a three-carbon serine precursor, but no experimental evidence concerning the possible conversion of trioses or glyceric acid into serine and glycine has been reported. (2) Possible Two-carbon Precursors. Acetate. I n the rat, labeled acetate is converted into glycine by an indirect pathway, which probably involves the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pyruvate (Arnstein and Neuberger, 1949). Hogstrom (1953) has recently confirmed the limited utilization of I -CI4, 2-C13-acetate for the synthesis of glycine by regenerating rat liver.
COzH The probable absence of glvcine oxidase activitg in the intact animal. The extensive formation of glyoxylic acid from glycine in vivo appears to be excluded by observations that glyoxylic acid is further metabolized to oxalate both in vivo and in vitro. I n vitro, glyoxylic acid is oxidized to oxalate by milk xanthine dehydrogenase, by rabbit skeletal muscle (Ratner, Nocito, and Green, 1944), and by liomogenates of pigeon liver (Nakada and Weinhouse, 1953a), and this reaction has also been shown in vivo (Weinhouse and Friedmann, 1951).