By Elias G. Carayannis
The Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship (CI2E) is a three-volume digital and print reference that uniquely covers the vast spectrum of subject matters when it comes to the method of creativity and innovation, from a large choice of views (e.g., economics, administration, psychology, anthropology, coverage, know-how, schooling, the humanities) and modes (individual, association, undefined, kingdom, region). The source is created from a few three hundred topical entries, definitions of keyword phrases and ideas, and evaluation essays, from a world array of greater than 250 researchers, company executives, policymakers, and artists, illuminating the various elements of creativity and innovation, and highlighting their relationships to such common ideas as wisdom administration, monetary chance, and sustainability. Entries characteristic description of key suggestions and definition of phrases, full-color illustrations, case examples, destiny instructions for study and alertness, synonyms and cross-references, and bibliographic references.
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Additional resources for Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship
1 Knowledge production, linear and non-linear innovation interaction between academic firms, commerical firms, and universities (higher education institutions) (Source: Authors’ own conceptualization based on Carayannis and Campbell (2009, p. 211; 2012, p. 25) and on Campbell and Carayannis (2013, p. 29)) Academic Firm Knowledge Application (Innovation) Knowledge Application (Innovation) Commercial Firm Networks: Cooperation, Competition, Co-Opetition. University-related Institutions Higher Education System, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) Knowledge Production (Research) Academic firms express a particular interest to network with universities, other higher education institutions, university-related institutions, and all forms and manifestations of organizations that conduct an academically based type of research or basic research.
Between these two conceptual poles of understanding, there are various possibilities of a gradual or also unconventional (radical) 17 A combination of principles for the empirical organization of a concrete firm, its organizational manifestation. The shortcut for a definition therefore is as follows: “The Commercial Firm concentrates on maximizing or optimizing profit, whereas the Academic Firm focuses on maximizing or optimizing knowledge and innovation” (Carayannis and Campbell 2012, p. 27). Knowledge and innovation are crucial key drivers for the academic firm.
At the same time, new findings could be published in a specialized scientific journal or invited lectures could be given at universities (¼ academic). 3. An academic entrepreneur working in the helix area of “Environment” could, for example, be employed as a natural scientist at the university (¼ academic). At the same time, patents could be registered for the university and promoted in cooperation between the university and a pharmaceutical enterprise (¼ entrepreneurship). Academic Entrepreneur, Academic Entrepreneurship 7 A Academic Entrepreneur, Academic Entrepreneurship, Fig.