By Nicholas K. Menzies
Even though China is usually thought of to have suffered non-stop deforestation over such a lot of its historical past, forests have been safe or perhaps planted and maintained for hundreds of years in a few areas. This research identifies six such circumstances. It makes use of old facts to teach that people and groups act to regulate assets sustainably for a couple of purposes together with financial profit, non secular or symbolic reasons, and that sustainability of the administration approach is dependent upon the shape of regulate exerted over the source.
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Additional info for Forest and Land Management in Imperial China
It includes many detailed proposals for the rational management of natural resources, addressing wood and forests, water resources, soil conservation, exploitation of minerals, and even the uses of fire. 49 The conflict between management and wasteful destruction of resources is best seen in the actions of Qin Shi Huang Di, the first emperor of the unified Chinese state. He is known to have undertaken large-scale tree planting projects such as the defensive palisade of elm Forests in China 33 trees already referred to above.
It is a Yin (female) trigram. It also represents the eldest daughter, the hen, wind, the late spring and early summer, and its primary concept is 'slow steady work, growth of woods, vegetative force'. 38 Seasonal changes in vegetation were closely observed and related to the concept of Yin and Yang. Agricultural writers noticed that some trees grew better in light and some grew better in shade, calling the former Yang trees, and the latter Yin trees - and the terms are still used in contemporary Chinese silviculture to refer to the English language terms 'shade intolerant' and 'shade tolerant'.
It is more satisfactory to generalise the conditions under which the resource is identified to include consideration of the ethical and political 'needs' which were also met by forests. ' can be reformulated as two further questions: 1. Under what conditions did individuals, groups, or institutions recognise that some areas of forested land were a resource, and that some form of management would be needed to maintain its usefulness? 2. How did the users enforce the boundaries of the resource, and ensure compliance with the management regime?