Read e-book online Introduction to the Objective Caml programming language PDF

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Arrays can be created with the [ |e1 ; . . ; en | ] syntax, which creates an array of length n initialized with the values computed from the expressions e1 , . . , en . (i) construction. Array indices start from 0. Arrays are bounds-checked. (i) <- e assignment statement. (2) <- 9;; : unit = () a;; : int array = [|1; 3; 9; 7|] The Array library module defines additional functions on arrays. create function, which requires a length and initializer argument. length function returns the number of elements in the array.

30 CHAPTER 4. BASIC PATTERN MATCHING 0 val is_one : int -> bool = # is_one 1;; - : bool = true # is_one 2;; Uncaught exception: Match_failure("", 11, 19) # let is_unit () = true;; val is_unit : unit -> bool = # is_unit ();; - : bool = true Chapter 5 Tuples, Lists, and Polymorphism In the chapters leading up to this one, we have seen simple expressions involving numbers, characters, strings, functions and variables. This language is already Turing complete—we can code arbitrary data types using numbers and functions.

This can be done in two parts. First find the location where the node is to be inserted. If possible, add the new node with a Red label because this would preserve invariant 3. This may, however, violate invariant 2 because the new Red node may have a Red parent. If this happens, the balance function migrates the Red label upward in the tree. # let balance = function Black, Node (Red, Node (Red, a, x, b), y, c), z, d -> Node (Red, Node (Black, a, x, b), y, Node (Black, c, | Black, Node (Red, a, x, Node (Red, b, y, c)), z, d -> Node (Red, Node (Black, a, x, b), y, Node (Black, c, | Black, a, x, Node (Red, Node (Red, b, y, c), z, d) -> Node (Red, Node (Black, a, x, b), y, Node (Black, c, | Black, a, x, Node (Red, b, y, Node (Red, c, z, d)) -> Node (Red, Node (Black, a, x, b), y, Node (Black, c, | a, b, c, d -> Node (a, b, c, d) let insert x s = let rec ins = function Leaf -> Node (Red, Leaf, x, Leaf) | Node (color, a, y, b) as s -> if x < y then balance (color, ins a, y, b) else if x > y then balance (color, a, y, ins b) else s in match ins s with (* guaranteed to be non-empty *) Node (_, a, y, b) -> Node (Black, a, y, b) | Leaf -> raise (Invalid_argument "insert");; z, d)) z, d)) z, d)) z, d)) 44 CHAPTER 6.

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