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By Abid Ali Ansari, Sarvajeet Singh Gill, Ritu Gill, Guy R. Lanza, Lee Newman

This booklet info the plant-assisted remediation approach, “phytoremediation”, which consists of the interplay of plant roots and linked rhizospheric microorganisms for the remediation of soil infected with excessive degrees of metals, insecticides, solvents, radionuclides, explosives, crude oil, natural compounds and diverse different contaminants. each one bankruptcy highlights and compares the necessary and comparatively cheap choices of phytoremediation to presently practiced soil removing and burial practices.

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Extra info for Phytoremediation: Management of Environmental Contaminants, Volume 3

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Results demonstrated the increase of N. glauca tolerance to metals, such as Pb and Cd, and a higher accumulation Pb capacity in comparison of wild species in pot experiment with a Pb- and Zn-contaminated soil from a mine area. When GEPs are used for applications in phytoremediation, the potential environmental risk needs to be considered. Possible risks include biological transformation of metals in more bioavailable forms, higher exposure of wildlife to metals in case of accumulation in palatable part of the plants, uncontrolled diffusion of transgenic plants [99–101].

Curr Opin Biotechnol 8(2):221–226 59. Vara Prasad MN, de Oliveira Freitas HM (2003) Metal hyperaccumulation in plants: biodiversity prospecting for phytoremediation technology. Electron J Biotechnol 6(3):285–321 60. Vamerali T, Bandiera M, Mosca G (2010) Field crops for phytoremediation of metalcontaminated land. A review. Environ Chem Lett 8(1):1–17 61. Lai T, Cao A, Zucca A et al (2012) Use of natural zeolites charged with ammonium or carbon dioxide in phytoremediation of lead and zinc contaminated soils.

Küpper et al. [73] observed that during excessive Cd-induced stress, a few mesophyll cells became more inhibited and accumulated more Cd than the majority of cells and this heterogeneity disappeared during acclimation in plants with good bioconcentration potential. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters related to photochemistry were more strongly affected by Cd stress than nonphotochemical parameters indicating that Cd inhibits photosynthetic light reactions more than the Calvin-Benson cycle. 2 Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals by Fast-Growing Trees: A Review 37 The substitution of Mg ion in chlorophyll by heavy metals leads to a breakdown in photosynthesis.

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