By Professor K. Oura, Professor M. Katayama, Professor A. V. Zotov, Professor V. G. Lifshits, Professor A. A. Saranin (auth.)
Designed as a textbook for complicated undergraduate and graduate scholars in engineering and actual sciences who're looking a basic evaluation of floor technology, this publication additionally offers the mandatory history for researchers simply beginning out within the box. It covers all of the most crucial elements of recent floor technological know-how, from the experimental historical past and crystallographic fundamentals to fashionable analytical options and functions to skinny motion pictures and nanostructures. All themes are provided in a concise and transparent shape available to a newbie. whilst, the assurance is accomplished and at a excessive technical point, with emphasis at the basic actual ideas. quite a few examples, references, perform workouts, and difficulties supplement this remarkably whole remedy, so that it will additionally function a very good reference for researchers and practitioners.
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In contrast, while using a stainless steel knife edge cutting into soft copper (metal-to-metal seal), no precautions of this kind are required. The actuating mechanism should also be sealed against atmosphere. To reach this goal, bellows are used and these are welded or sealed to the valve body. 30 3. Experimental Background Tolal Pressure 10-6 Torr 18 Water a 28 Nitrogen Tolal Pressure 10"6 Torr 32 Oxygen 40 Argon b 28 Carbon Monoxide Tolal Pressure 10-9 Torr 2 Hydrogen 44 Carbon Dioxide c 10 20 30 40 50 mle Fig.
3. The main elements are • an electron gun to produce a collimated beam of low-energy electrons, • a sample holder with the sample under investigation, and • a hemispherical fluorescent screen with a set of four grids to observe the diffraction pattern of the elastically scattered electrons. Note that the sample is located at the center of curvature of the grids and screen. The electron gun unit consists of a cathode filament with a Wehnelt cylinder followed by an electrostatic lens. The cathode is at negative potential (- V), while the last aperture of the lens, the sample, and the first grid are at earth potential.
Usually they are transparent for visible light and made of glass. However, for special application, UV or IR-transparent viewports are available. In the viewports, the glass is sealing to the low-expansion alloy Fe/Ni/Co, known as Kovar. Nevertheless, viewports are quite sensitive to rapid temperature changes or gradients. To reduce t emperature gradients viewports are usually covered with layers of aluminum foil before bakeout. They can easily be l:itressed or even damaged 34 • 3. Experimental Background b d Fig.